What is Electromagnetic Force

The electromagnetic force is a branch of physics. It is a physical interaction that occurs between electrically charged particles. The electromagnetic force is carried by electromagnetic fields composed of electric fields and magnetic fields. it is responsible for electromagnetic radiation such as light. Weak energy, the weak force, and electromagnetic force are unified as a single electroweak force.

Electromagnetism is widely used in modern technology, and electromagnetic theory is the basis of electric power engineering and electronics including digital technology. It includes both magnetism and electricity as different manifestations of the same phenomenon. It plays an important role in determining the internal properties of objects encountered in daily life. The atomic nuclei and their orbital electrons hold atoms together. Electromagnetic forces are responsible for chemical bonds between atoms which create molecules and intermolecular forces.

History of electromagnetism

In earlier times electricity and magnetism were considered two different forces. This opinion was changed by Clerk Maxwell in 1873. When he presented a treatise on electricity and magnetism. Which showed that the interactions of positive and negative charges were medullated by one force. Both these forces are then combined to give them a name currently known as electromagnetism.

While preparing for a lecture on 21st April 1820. Hans Christian Orsted made an observation. As he set up the materials, he observed a compass needle deflected away from the magnetic north when the electric current from the battery he was using was switched on and off.

At that time he did not present any satisfactory explanation of this phenomenon. However, after around three months he began the more intensive investigation. Soon after that, he published his finding that electric current generates a magnetic field while flowing through a wire.

His findings resulted in intensive research through all the scientific community of electrodynamics. His discovery represents a major step towards a unified concept of energy. This unification was observed by Michael Faraday. Which was extended by James Clerk Maxwell, and partially reformulated by Oliver Heaviside and Heinrich Hertz.

This had far-reaching consequences, one of which was understanding the nature of light. This was a different approach as earlier it was proposed that the electromagnetic theory of that time, light and other electromagnetic waves are present seen as taking the form quantized. Self-propagating oscillatory electromagnetic field disturbances called photons. Different frequencies of oscillation give rise to different forms of electromagnetic radiation. while radio waves at the lowest frequencies, to visible light at intermediate frequencies, and to gamma rays at the highest frequencies.

Fundamental Forces

  • The strong nuclear– It binds quarks to forms nucleons, and binds nucleons to form nuclei.
  • The weak nuclear force Which binds to all known particles in the standard model. It causes certain forms of radioactive decay.
  • The gravitational forces- Gravity is the force by which a planet or other body draws objects toward its center. The force of gravity keeps all of the planets in orbit around the sun.

Classical Electrodynamics

William Gilbert proposed in the year 1600. That electricity and magnetism while being capable of causing attraction and repulsion of objects. They had distinct effects. Mariners noticed that the strikes of lighting had the ability to disturb a compass needle. One of the first to discover and publish a link between electric current and magnetism was Gian Romagnosi. As in the year, 1802 noticed that connecting a wire across a voltaic pile deflected a nearby compass needle.

However, the effect did not become widely known in 1820. When Orsted performed a similar experiment. A theory of electromagnetism known as classical electromagnetism was developed by various physicists during the period of 1820 and 1873. It unified the preceding developments into a single theory and discovered the electromagnetic nature of light. The behavior of the electromagnetic field is described by a set of equations known as Maxwell’s equations and the electromagnetic force is given by the Lorentz force law.

One of the peculiarities of classical electromagnetism is that it is difficult to reconcile with classical mechanics. but it is compatible with special relativity. According to Maxwell’s equations, the speed of light in a vacuum is a universal constant that is dependent only on the electrical permittivity and magnetic permeability of free space. This violated Galilean invariance, a long-standing cornerstone of classical mechanics. One way to reconcile the two theories is to assume the existence of a luminiferous aether through which the light propagates. However, subsequent experimental efforts failed to detect the presence of aether.



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