The Black death

The pandemic changes the course of the world and in many countries. Due to an unknown virus that spread in the 1300s. Which killed many people and was the reason for their death. The black death pandemic is also known as the bubonic plague.

Creating an epidemic due to which many people died.

The bubonic plague virus

One to seven days after exposure to the bacteria, flu-like symptoms develop. these symptoms also contain fever, headaches, and vomiting. Painful and swollen nodes develop an area from where the bacteria entered. the nodes occasionally break open. Prevention is through public health measures such as not handling dead animals in areas where plague is common. The vaccine has not been found to be very useful for plague prevention. Without treatment, the plague results in the death of 30% to 90% of those infected. Death, if it occurs, is typically within ten days. With treatment, the risk of death is around 10%. Globally between 2010 and 2015, there were 3248 documented cases, which resulted in 584 deaths.

The black death pandemic

The black death pandemic is also known as the plague. Was it the deadliest pandemic recorded in human history? Black-death pandemic recorded the death of 75-200 million people in Eurasia and North America.

Peaking in Europe from 1347 to 1351. The plague was the disease caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis, which was the cause. The black death most likely originated in central or east Asia and traveled along the Silk road. The black death was the second greatest disaster that affected Europe. The first one is the great famine of 1315 to 1317. Which killed 30% to 60% of the population of Europe.

Transmission of black death

The importance of hygiene was only recognized in the nineteenth century. It was due to the development of the germ theory of disease. Until then streets were commonly filthy, with live animals of all sorts around and human parasites abounding, facilitating the spread of transmissible diseases. The spread of disease was significantly more rampant in areas of poverty. Epidemics ravaged cities, and particularly children. The plague was easily spread by lice, unsanitary drinking water, armies, or poor sanitation. One early medical advance as a result of the Black Death was the establishment of the idea of Quarantine in the city of Ragusa. (modern Dubrovnik, Croatia). in 1377 after continuing outbreaks.

European outbreak

According to some epidemiologists, periods of unfavorable weather decimated plague-infected rodent populations and forced their fleas onto alternative hosts. Inducing plague outbreaks which often peaked in the hot summers of the Mediterranean. During the cool autumn months of the southern Baltic states. Among many other culprits of plague contagiousness, Malnutrition, even if distantly, also contributed to such an immense loss in the European population, since it weakened immune systems.

Deaths due to plague

There are no exact figures for the death toll; the rate varied widely by locality. In urban centers, the greater the population before the outbreak, the longer the duration of the period of abnormal mortality.

It killed some 75 to 200 million people in Eurasia. The mortality rate of the Black Death in the 14th century was far greater than the worst 20th-century outbreaks. It is likely that over four years, 45–50% of the European population died of the plague.

Economy during virus

With such a large population decline from the pandemic, wages soared in response to a labor shortage. On the other hand, in the quarter-century after the Black Death in England, it is clear many laborers, artisans, and craftsmen, those living from money-wages alone, did suffer a reduction in real incomes owing to rampant inflation.

black death virus pandemic plague
Black death doctor’s masks

Plague doctors

Plague doctors were physicians who were hired by the town where the plague has taken over.

As the city was paying them they treated everyone whether it’s a wealthy or a poor person.

Some of the doctors charged additional fees for some of the patients who demanded special treatment or false cures.

They were not experienced physicians or surgeons at all. They were often second grade doctors.

Who otherwise cannot run a successful medical career. Some of them were young physicians seeking to establish them in the industry. They rarely cured their patients rather they just take a record of the number of people contaminated.

Social

The demographic decline the virus had economic consequences. The prices of food dropped and land values declined by 30–40% in most parts of Europe between 1350 and 1400. Landholders faced a great loss, but for ordinary men and women, it was a windfall. The survivors of the pandemic found not only that the prices of food were lower but also that lands were more abundant, and many of them inherited property from their dead relatives, and this probably destabilized feudalism.

Summary

There were many reasons for the spread of the black death. One being lack of sanitation and the other being lacks proper knowledge. By the passing of time, we can see there are still many viruses that emerged. Recent being the covid-19. But they can be avoided and cured by the advancements in healthcare and micro-biology. Which can further reduce the damage which a virus can cause.

~Nikshan


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